The vitamin D receptor (VDR) is a protein that is triggered by vitamin D. It is involved in maintaining the mineral stability in the body and leading to growth and hair creation. It also interacts with adipose muscle.
VDRs are expressed inside the parathyroid glands, intestines, epithelial cells, and many resistant cell types. They are considered to regulate the intestinal consumption of calcium mineral, and to mediate some of the effects of vitamin D on bone routine service. Also, they are thought to enjoy an important purpose in metabolic rate.
VDR is found in a variety of tissue, including epithelial cells, macrophages, neutrophils, and skin keratinocytes. However , they are really most widely expressed in the kidneys and your bones.
The VDR is phosphorylated on serine residues by a lot of protein kinases. These kinases include PKA and PKC. The effect these kinases in VDR is usually ligand structured. Specifically, the phosphorylation of Ser51 simply by PKC lowered virtual data room comparison VDR nuclear localization. Likewise, phosphorylation of Ser182 by PKA reduced RXR heterodimerization.
Research have shown that VDRs can be found in a subset of glial cells, especially in oligodendrocytes in white subject. Although VDR immunoreactivity has been discovered in a number of glial cell lines, no evidence has been offered that the existence of VDR in glia is a cause of increased risk of tumorigenesis.
Additionally , VDR appears to be present in a subset of neurons. Actually nuclear staining has been showed in our cortex and glial cell-lines.
A large 220-kDa protein can be found in human major glioblastoma cellular material. In contrast, a little recombinant VDR-like protein was produced.